Designing and Empirical Testing of a Model for “Determining Instances of Disclosure” in Management Commentary in Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Distinguished Prof., Department of Accounting, Faculty of Economics, Management and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Economics, Management and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.



Objective: The purpose of this research is to design and empirically test a model for determining instances of disclosure in the management commentary (MC) in Iran. To the best of its author’s knowledge, this study can be characterized as a practical one for the first time in the world.
Methods: This piece of research adopted a mixed research method (a combination of qualitative and quantitative data). First, the research model’s disclosure instances were identified qualitatively.  Then, they were tested quantitatively. In the qualitative part, appropriate disclosure instances regarding the six content elements of MC were identified using qualitative content analysis via conducting a review of the extant reporting guidelines and frameworks, MC of companies, and the latest findings of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Foundation. In the quantitative part, to localize disclosure instances based on the information needs of the financial reports’ main users, the relevant data were collected through a survey method using a questionnaire from the view of investors and creditors. The investors were individual investors and investment experts working in investment companies, investment funds, portfolio management companies, and brokerages, in 2021. The creditors included lenders to the companies. In this research, the opinions of credit experts of Iranian banks familiar with the MC and also involved in the financing of companies were obtained. In the following, descriptive statistics, demographic variables, and the Kolomogorov-Smirnov test were used. The one-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test and Friedman's test were next used to determine the final disclosure instances and to rank them, respectively. Also, the confirmatory factor analysis technique, based on SEM-PLS, was used to verify the disclosure instances and to evaluate the research model. Consequently, the final research model was presented.
Results: Based on the findings of the qualitative part of the research, 88 disclosure instances were identified. Then, following the quantitative part of the research’s tests, the number of disclosure instances of the proposed model of MC in Iran was reduced to 74 disclosure instances. These disclosure instances were classified into six content elements: 1. "business model" with six disclosure instances, 2. "strategy and objectives" with 14 disclosure instances, 3. "resources and relationships" with 15 disclosure instances, 4. "risks and risk management" with 14 disclosure instances, 5. "external environment" with six disclosure instances, and 6. "position and performance" with 19 disclosure instances. Moreover, the disclosure instances of each of these six content elements were ranked based on their relative importance using the Friedman test.
Conclusion: Considering the disclosure instances’ comprehensiveness provided by the proposed model, as well as its locality and appropriateness to Iran's environmental conditions, the proposed model by this study can act as an effective guide for regulators including the Iranian Audit Organization and the Iranian Securities & Exchange Organization.  These organizations can use the aforementioned model in establishing regulations and guidelines relevant to the MC’s preparation. Furthermore, these disclosure instances help companies in presenting and disclosing more useful information in the form of voluntary disclosure and also help them in preparing an efficient and effective MC.


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