The Nature of Monetary Ethics and Accounting Students’ Ethical Perception: The Role of Individual Characteristics

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 MSc. Student, Dep. of Accounting, Faculty of Economic and Management, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Dep. of Accounting, Faculty of Economic and Management, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Integrity is the foundational basis of the accounting profession. Recently, corporate scandals exposed the accounting profession to great pressure of regulators and public. Understanding the ethical values of accounting students is very crucial for improving the integrity of accounting profession. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between ethical perception and monetary ethics of accounting students. In order to answer the research question, three hypotheses were examined. Information required to measure ethical perception and monetary ethics was gathered through Forsyth’s Ethical Position Questionnaire (1980) and Tang’s Money Ethic Scale (1992) respectively. The sample was consisted of 375 students majoring in Accounting that were examined in 2015. The findings showed that the students' ethical perception was independent of their monetary ethics. Furthermore, age and educational level of students were not associated with their monetary ethics and ethical perception. Additionally, the results revealed that the students' gender was related to their monetary ethics, while no relation with their ethical perceptions was found.

Keywords


Abbaszadeh, M.R. & Moeinizadeh, M. (2014). The effect of Gender on accounting students' perception: Cross-cultural study in Iran and United Kingdom. Journal of Empirical Research in Accounting, 3 (11), 55-73. (in Persian)
Ahmadpour, A. & Hadiyan, S.A. (2015). Changes in the value relevance of accounting information and identifying the factors affecting the value relevance. The Iranian Accounting and Auditing Review, 22 (1), 1-20.
(in Persian)
Attia, A., Shankarmahesh, M. & Singhapakdi, A. (1999). Marketing Ethics: A Comparison of American and MiddleEastern Marketers. International Business Review, (8), 611-663.
Ayu, W. (2014). Determinan persepsi etika mahasiswa akuntansi dengan love of money sebagai variabel intervening. Journal ilmiah mahasiswa feb, Available at: http:// jimfeb.ub.ac.id/ index.php /jimfeb/article/view/1024.
Alavi Tabari, S.H., Mojtahedzadeh, V. & Bakhtiyari, N. (2012). Effects of auditor gender on auditing quality of independent auditing. research magazine of financial accounting and auditing, 4 (13), 21-43. (in Persian)
Bandura, A., Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., Regalia, C. & Scabini, E. (2011). Impact of family efficacy beliefs on quality of family functioning and satisfaction with family life. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 60 (3), 421-448.
Borkowski, S.C. & Ugras, Y.J. (1998). Business students and ethics: a meta-analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, (11), 1117-1127.
Charismawati, C.D. (2011). Analysis of the Relationship between Love of Money with Accounting Student’s Ethical Perceptions. Thesis MSc, the Faculty of Economics, University Diponegoro.
Easterlin, R.A. (2006). Life cycle happiness and its sources: Intersections of psychology, economics, and demography. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27 (4), 463- 482.
Elm, D.R., Kennedy, E.J., & Lawton, L. (2001). Determinants of Moral Reasoning: Sex Role Orientation, Gender, and Academic Factors. Business and Society, 40 (3), 241-265.
Esa, E. & Zahari, A.R. (2015). The Relationship between Personal Traits and Accounting Students Perception on Ethics and Love of Money: Case of Malaysian Government-Linked University. Asian Economic and Social Society, 5 (8), 174-182.
Etemadi, H. & Dianati Dilami, Z. (2009). The Effect of Ethical Ideology on Quality of Financial Reporting. Journal of Ethics in Science and Technology, 4 (1), 11-20. (in Persian)
Farajzadeh Dehkordi, H. & Nourshahi, K. (2015). Prioritization of personal values and Accountants personal characteristics: A Critique of Education Accountants. Iranian Accounting Association, Auditing and Accounting Research, 7 (25), 118-133. (in Persian)
Forsyth, D.R. (1980). Taxonomy of Ethical Ideologies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (39), 84-175.
Foucault, M. (2001) b. Fearless speech. Los Angeles, Ed: Semiotext Pearson.
Furoghi abri, M., Jafari, A. & Naderi bani, R.A. (2014). Factors affecting moral judgments on the Iranian Society of CPAs. Quarterly Financial Accounting, 6 (22), 114-133. (in Persian)
Gbadamosi, G. & Joubert, P. (2005). Money ethic, moral conduct and work related attitudes: Field study from the public sector in Swaziland. Journal of Management Development, 24 (8), 754-763.
George, j. (2009). Perception, attribution and the management of diversity. In: understanding and managing organizational behavior. USA, Ed: prentice hall, chapter 4, 105-140.
Golparvar, M. & Javadian, Z. (2010). The relation between believing in just and unjust world and interest in money. A Research Quarterly in Ethics, 3 (10), 61-78. (in Persian)
Gordon, F.W., Ying, H.F. & Scully, G. (2013). How Chinese Auditors’ Relativistic Ethical Orientations Influence Their Love of Money. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 18 (2), 20-29.
Hasan Gholipour, T., Dehghan Nayeri, M. & MirMehdi, S.M. (2012). Affecting Factors on Ethical Attitudes of Business Students. Journal of Ethics in Science and Technology, 6 (4), 63-74. (in Persian)
Ho, Y.H. (2007). Undergraduate accounting students' perception of accounting ethics: A cross-cultural comparative study, for the degree of doctor of philosophy. The faculty of the graduate school of the University of Minnesota.
Hunt, S.D. & Vitell S. (1986). A General Theory of Marketing Ethics. Journal of Macromarketing, 6 (1), 5-16.
Jones, T.M. )1991(. Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue Contingent Model. Academy of Management Review, 16) 2), 366-395.
Keller, A.C., Smith, K.T. & Smith, L.M. (2007). Do Gender, Educational Level, Religiosity, and Work Experience Affect the Ethical Decision-making of U.S. Accountants?. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, (18), 299-314.
Khajavi, Sh. & Najafi, Z. (2016). The examination of the constraints of qualitative characteristics of accounting information: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange. The Iranian Accounting and Auditing Review, 22 (4), 421-440.
(in Persian)
Lea, S.E.G. & Webley, P. (2006). Money as tool, money as drug: The biological psychology of a strong incentive. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29 (2), 161-209.
Mahdavi, Gh.H. & Alipour, S. (2010). Ethical decision-making approaches of companies’ financial managers. Journal of accounting knowledge, 1 (2), 33-53. (In Persian)
Mahdavi, Gh.H. & Ebrahimi, F. (2013). Professional Values and Ethical Perception of Internal Auditors of Iran Medical Sciences Universities. Journal of health accounting, 2 (3), 54-67. (in Persian)
Marwah, Y. & Anim, W. (2015). Analysis of Effect of Ethics Education and Love of Money Perception of Accounting Students in the Preparation of Financial Statements. Journal of Education and Vocational Research, 6 (1), 1-12.
Mehrani, K., Nargesian, A. & Ganji, K. (2016). Antecedents and Consequences of Perceived Gender Discrimination in the Audit Profession. The Iranian Accounting and Auditing Review, 23 (1), 97-116. (in Persian)
Okafor, G.O., Okaro, S.C. & Egbunike, C.F. (2015). Students Perception of Ethics: Implications for National Development. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 5 (1), 345-357.
Royaei, R.A., Talebnia, Gh., Hasas Yeganeh, Y. & Jalili, S. (2013). Relationship between Personal Moral Philosophy and Demographic Characteristics With audit Quality Reduction Behaviors. Journal of Management accounting, 6 (16), 15-26. (in Persian)
Sahril, J. (2013). The ethical perception of accounting student: review of gender, religiosity and the love of money. Journal Ilmiah Mahasiswa FEB. Available at: http://jimfeb.ub.ac. id/index.php/ jimfeb/article/view/626.
Salmanpanah, N. & Talebnia, Gh. (2013). Factors affecting Iranian CPA's ethical judgment. Journal of Management accounting, 6 (18), 87-96. (in Persian)
Schlenker, B.R. & Forsyth, D.R. (1977). On the Ethics of Psychological Research. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13 (4), 369-396.
Setayesh, M.H., Maher, M.H. & Abolhallaj, M. (2012).The Effect of Personal and Social Characteristics on Perception of Moral Principles among Directors of Finance and Budget of Universities of Medical Science in Iran. Journal of health accounting, 1 (1), 17-32. (in Persian)
Smith, A. & Rogers, V. (2000). Ethics-Related Response to Specific Situation Vignettes: evidence of Gender-Based Difference and Occupational socialization. Journal of Business Ethics, (28), 73-86.
Tahriri, A. & Piri Sagharloo, M. (2016). Auditors’ perceptions of professional skepticism in audit work.  The Iranian Accounting and Auditing Review, 23 (1), 117-135. (in Persian)
Tang, T. (2007). Income and Quality of Life: Does the Love of Money Make a Difference?. Journal of Business Ethics, 72 (4), 375-393.
Tang, T.L.P. & Chen, Y.J. (2008). Intelligence vs. wisdom: the love of money, Machiavellianism, and unethical behavior across college major and gender. Journal of Business Ethics, (82), 1-26.
Tang, T.L.P. & Chiu, R.K. (2003). Income, money ethic, pay satisfaction, commitment, and unethical behavior: is the love to money the root of evil for Hong Kong employees? Journal of Business Ethic, 46 (1), 13-30.
Tang, T.L.P. (1992). The meaning of money revisited. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13 (2), 197-202.
Tang, T.L.P., Kim, J.K., & Tang, D.S.H. (2000). Does attitude toward money moderate the relationship between intrinsic job satisfaction and voluntary turnover? Human Relations, 53 (2), 213-245.
Tang, T.L.P., Luna-Arocas, R. & Whiteside, H.D. (2003). Money ethic endorsement, self reported income, and life satisfaction: university faculty in the USA and Spain. Personnel Review, 32 (6), 756-773.
Tang, T.L.P., Tang, D.S.H. & Luna-Arocas, R. (2005). Money profiles: the love of money, attitudes, and needs. Personnel Review, 34 (5), 603-624.